THE CORRELATION BETWEEN INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP AND EFFICACY AMONG THE CAMBODIAN PUBLIC LOWER SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
Keywords:Instructional Leadership, Lower Secondary School Teacher, Teacher Efficacy
Researchers have explored instructional leadership's correlation with teacher efficacy in developed countries, yet there is no research to broadly study in developing country contexts, especially in the public schools of Cambodia. Hence, the research objective is to find a significant correlation between the instructional leader and the efficacy of Cambodian public lower secondary school teachers. The researcher uses a quantitative method to collect data through a survey questionnaire. Also, the researcher uses the Pearson Correlation coefficient, a tool in SPSS version 23, to find the correlation between the instructional leader and teacher efficacy. There were 100 participants who were public lower secondary school teachers who participated in the data collection process. The key finding points out that the instructional leader has a high positive correlation with teacher efficacy, which is statistically significant. Thus, the instructional leader certainly correlates with efficacy among Cambodian public lower secondary school teachers. The result is significant for instructional leaders and relevant stakeholders in improving teachers' efficacy to fulfill their tasks better than before. Besides, future studies should focus on similar topics with different theories and a larger sample size at other institutions across the country. Finally, future studies should also emphasize qualitative and mixed-method designs.
Adu, E. O., & Olatundun, S. O. (2007). Teachers' perception of teaching as correlates of students' academic performance in Oyo state, Nigeria. Essays in education, 20(1), 57-64.
Akiri, A. A., & Ugborugbo, N. M. (2009). Teachers' effectiveness and students' academic performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. Studies on Home and Community Science, 3(2), 107-113.
Al-Mahdy, Y. E. H., Emam, M. M., & Hallinger, P. (2018). Assessing the contribution of principal instructional leadership and collective teacher efficacy to teacher commitment in Oman. Teaching and Teacher Education, 69(2018), 191-201.
Aydin, A., Sarier, Y., & Uysal, S. (2013). The Effect of School Principals' Leadership Styles on Teachers' Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 13(2), 806-811.
Ball, J. (2010). An analysis of teacher self-efficacy, teacher trust, and collective efficacy in a southwest Texas school district. [Unpublished Dissertation, Texas A&M University]. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/147137027.pdf
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.
Bandura, A. (1997). Efficacy: The exercise of control. NewYork, NY: Freeman.
Bolden, R., Hawkins, B., Gosling, J., & Taylor, S. (2011). Exploring leadership: Individual, organizational, and societal perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press.
Brinkman, W. R. (2015). How charismatic leadership affects direct follower behavior and perceived meeting effectiveness [Unpublished Bachelor's thesis, University of Twente]. https://essay.utwente.nl/68536/1/Brinkman_BA_MB.pdf
Bunlot, K. (2016). Instructional leadership of public secondary school principals as perceived by teachers in Kampong Thom province. [Unpublished Master's Thesis, Royal University Of Phnom Penh]. http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/718
Butts, E. T. (2016). A Study of the relationship of teachers' self-efficacy and the impact of common core professional development. [Unpublished Dissertation, Gardner-Webb University].
Calik, T., Sezgin, F., Kavgaci, H., & Cagatay Kilinc, A. (2012). Examination of Relationships between Instructional Leadership of School Principals and Self-Efficacy of Teachers and Collective Teacher Efficacy. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 12(4), 2498-2504.
Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Steca, P., & Malone, P. S. (2006). Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of job satisfaction and students' academic achievement: A study at the school level. Journal of school psychology, 44(6), 473-490.
Chhinh, S., & Dy, S. S. (2009). Education reform context and process in Cambodia. In The political economy of educational reforms and capacity development in Southeast Asia. Springer, Dordrecht 13(1), 113-129.
Day, C., Gu, Q., & Sammons, P. (2016). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: How successful school leaders use transformational and instructional strategies to make a difference. Educational administration quarterly, 52(2), 221-258. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0013161X15616863
Dibapile, W. T. S. (2012). A review of literature on teacher efficacy and classroom Management. Educational Psychology & Counseling Publications and Other Works, 9(2) 79-92.
Derrington, M. L., & Angelle, P. S. (2013). Teacher leadership and collective efficacy: connections and links. International Journal of Teacher Leadership, 4(1), 1-13. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=eJ1137394
Drake, T. L., & Roe, W. H. (2003). The principalship. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Dy, S.S. (2004). Strategies and policies for basic education in Cambodia: Historical perspectives. International Education Journal, 5(1), 90-97.
Em, S., Chin, P., Khan, S., & Nun, N. (2022). Teacher education in Cambodia: formulae, challenges, and suggestions for improvement. Jurnal As-Salam, 6(2), 90-104. https://doi.org/10.37249/assalam.v6i2.401
Gallante, P. (2015). Principal leadership behaviors and teacher efficacy. [Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Walden University].
Goddard, R. D., Hoy, W. K., & Hoy, A. W. (2000). Collective teacher efficacy: Its meaning, measure, and impact on student achievement. American educational research journal, 37(2), 479-507.
Hallinger, P. (2005). Instructional leadership and the school principal: A passing fancy that refuses to fade away. Leadership and Policy in Schools 4(3), 221-239. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700760500244793
Hallinger, P. (2010). Developing instructional leadership. Springer 11(2010), 61-76. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9106-2_5
Hallinger, P. (2011). A review of three decades of doctoral studies using the principal instructional management rating scale: A lens on methodological progress in educational leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 47(2), 271-306. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0013161X10383412
Hallinger, P., & Lee, M. (2014). Mapping instructional leadership in Thailand: Has education reform impacted principal practice?. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 42(2014), 6-29.
Horton, J. (2015). Identifying at-risk factors that affect college student success. International Journal of Process Education, 7(1), 83-101. https://myworkforceconnection.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/risk.pdf
Hosseingholizadeh, R., Amrahi, A., & El-Farr, H. (2020). Instructional leadership, and teacher's collective efficacy, commitment, and professional learning in primary schools: a mediation model. Professional Development in Education, 1(18), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/19415257.2020.1850510
House, R. J. (1977). A 1976 Theory of Charismatic Leadership, in JG Hunt and LL Larson (Eds.), Leadership: The Cutting Edge. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Israel, G.D. (1992, November). Determining sample size. [University of Florida]. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/21353552/Determining_Sample_Size_1
Jillson, A. (2020). How Does Burnout and Self-Efficacy Effect Teacher's Perspectives and Implementation Status of Evidence-Based Behavior Management Practices?. [Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst] https://doi.org/10.7275/18052972
Jones, T. A. (2020). Conceptions of effective school principals in Cambodian public schools: a phenomenographic study. [Unpublished thesis, University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland] https://doi.org/10.25907/00003
Kempf, B. R. (2019). Middle School Teacher Instructional Self-Efficacy and Job Satisfaction. [Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Baker University].
King, E.F. (2018), "Developing teacher capacity in Cambodia: an expanded model", Asian Education and Development Studies, 7(1), 2-14.
Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Delhi: New Age International.
Kruger, A.G (2003). Instructional leadership: The impact on the culture of teaching and learning in two effective Secondary school: South Africa Journal of Education, 23(3), 206-201. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/saje/article/view/24935
Lankard, D. (1999). Sacred Places: Indian Rights After the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Fordham Environmental Law Journal, 10(3), 371-377.
Lasauskiene, J., & Rauduvaite, A. (2015). Project-based learning at university: Teaching experiences of lecturers. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 197(2015), 788-792.
Lavrakas, P. J. (2008). Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods. USA: Sage Publications.
Lawrence, N., & Sanders, F. (2012, September). Brief Three: Robust implementation of MDC: teacher perceptions of tool use and outcomes [Research for Action]. Retrieved from https://www.researchforaction.org/research-resources/brief-three-robust-implementation-of-mdc-teacher-perceptions-of-tool-use-and-outcomes/
Leech, N. L., Barrett, K. C., & Morgan, G. A. (2014). IBM SPSS for intermediate statistics: Use and interpretation (5th ed). New York: Routledge.
Loyce, O. C., & Victor, A. A. (2017). Principals' Application of Instructional Leadership Practices for Secondary School Effectiveness in Oyo State. Online Submission, 13(1), 32-44.
Marzano, R. J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. A. (2005). School leadership that works: From research to results. USA: ASCD.
Mayers, A. (2013). Introduction to statistics and SPSS in psychology. Edinburgh Gate: Pearson.
Mourshed, M., Chijioke, C., & Barber, M. (2007, September). How the world's best-performing school systems come out on top [McKinsey & Company]. Retrieved from https://bibliotecadigital.mineduc.cl/handle/20.500.12365/17300
Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MoEYS). (2015, January). Teacher policy action plan. Retrieved from http://www.moeys.gov.kh/en/policies-and-strategies/1442.html#.YzaORy2cbBI
Mukaka, M. M. (2012). A guide to appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research. Malawi medical journal, 24(3), 69-71.
Nasution, M. K. (2017). Reflecting Theories in Three Themes of Professional Development. Jurnal As-Salam, 1(1), 68-73.
Ovando, M. N., & Ramirez, A. (2007). Principals' instructional leadership within a teacher performance appraisal system: Enhancing students' academic success. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 20(2007), 85-110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11092-007-9048-1
Ozgenel, M. (2020). The role of charismatic leader in school culture. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 20(86), 85-114.
Özgenel, M., & Aksu, T. (2020). The power of school principals' ethical leadership behavior to predict organizational health. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 9(4), 816-825.
Özdemir, G., Sahin, S., & Öztürk, N. (2020). Teachers' Self-Efficacy Perceptions in Terms of School Principal's Instructional Leadership Behaviours. International Journal of Progressive Education, 16(1), 25-40.
Pajares, F. (2006). Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. USA: Information Age Publishing.
Rwelamila, J. (2019). The role of teachers' motivation on student's academic performance: the case of private secondary schools in Dar es Salaam [Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, The Open University of Tanzania].
Sallis, E. (2014). Total quality management in education (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.
Sarfo, F. K., Amankwah, F., Sam, F. K., & Konin, D. (2015). Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs: The relationship between gender and instructional strategies, classroom management and student engagement. Ghana Journal of Development Studies, 12(1-2), 19-32.
Schober, P., Boer, C., & Schwarte, L. A. (2018). Correlation coefficients: appropriate use and interpretation. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 126(5), 1763-1768.
Seng, C., Carlon, M. K. J., & Cross, J. S. (2020). Research self-efficacy of Cambodian undergraduate students at province-based universities. RISE, 9(2), 154-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.17583/rise.2020.4267
Sharma, B. (2016). A focus on reliability in developmental research through Cronbach's Alpha among medical, dental and paramedical professionals. Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences, 3(4), 271-278.
Shaukat, S., & Iqbal, H. M. (2012). Teacher self-efficacy as a function of student engagement, instructional strategies and classroom management. Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 10(2), 82-85.
?i?man, M. (2016). Factors related to instructional leadership perception and effect of instructional leadership on organizational variables: A meta-analysis. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 16(5), 1761–1787.
Smith, S. M. (n.d.). Determining sample size. Retrieved February 23, 2022, from https://uncw.edu/irp/ie/resources/documents/qualtrics/determining-sample-size-2.pdf
Sparks, G. A. (2014). Charismatic leadership: Findings of an exploratory investigation of the techniques of influence. Journal of Behavioral Studies in Business, 7(1) 1-11. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.649.7237&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Stromquist, N. P., & Monkman, K. (2000). Globalization and education: Integration and contestation across cultures. USA: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.
Sub-decree on teacher professional ethics: 2008, 2016 (2017, August 31). Retrieved from https://data.opendevelopmentcambodia.net/laws_record/sub-decree-on-the-teacher-professional-codes
Sweeney, J. C., Danaher, T. S., & McColl-Kennedy, J. R. (2015). Customer effort in value cocreation activities: Improving quality of life and behavioral intentions of health care customers. Journal of Service Research, 18(3), 318-335. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1094670515572128
Tan, C., & Ng, P. T. (2012). A critical reflection of teacher professionalism in Cambodia. Asian Education and Development Studies, 1(2) 124-138 https://doi.org/10.1108/20463161211240106
Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, A. W. (2007). The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs of novice and experienced teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23(6), 944-956.
Tweed, S. (2013). Technology implementation: teacher age, experience, self-efficacy, and professional development as related to classroom technology integration. [Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, East Tennessee State University].
Van Dinther, M., Dochy, F., & Segers, M. (2011). Factors affecting students' self-efficacy in higher education. Educational Research Review, 6(2), 95-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2010.10.003
Williams, K. M. (2015). Dynamics of Efficacy for Teachers in Formal Leadership Roles: A Case Study. Electronic Theses and Dissertations. [Unpublished Dissertation, East Tennessee State University] https://dc.etsu.edu/etd/2503
Woolfolk, A., & Hoy, W. K. (1990). Prospective teachers' sense of efficacy and beliefs about control. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 81-91. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.124
Yilmaz, K. (2013). Comparison of quantitative and qualitative research traditions: Epistemological, theoretical, and methodological differences. European journal of education, 48(2), 311-325.
Yost, D. S. (2006). Reflection and self-efficacy: Enhancing the retention of qualified teachers from a teacher education perspective. Teacher Education Quarterly, 33(4), 59-76.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Sopheng Tep
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.