Jurnal As-Salam https://jurnal-assalam.org/index.php/JAS <p><strong>As-Salam Journal </strong>[p-ISSN: <a href="http://issn.lipi.go.id/issn.cgi?daftar&amp;1467099712&amp;1&amp;&amp;">2528-1402</a> | e-ISSN: <a href="http://issn.lipi.go.id/issn.cgi?daftar&amp;1487061895&amp;1&amp;&amp;">2549-5593</a> | doi: <a href="https://doi.org/10.37249/jas">https://doi.org/10.37249/jas</a>] is a scientific publication journal published by <strong>The Lecturer Association of Islamic Studies</strong> in Aceh Province, published in a paper-based manner in 2016 and published online since 2017. As-Salam Journal is published 2 (two) times a year, first period in June and the second period in December. The As-Salam Journal is <em>Open Access</em> and <em>Peer-Reviewed</em>. The main objective of the As-Salam Journal is to provide a platform for national and international scholars, academics and researchers to share ideas in the fields of <strong><em>Science-Islamic Integration (interdisciplinary) and Education</em></strong>.</p> Asosiasi Dosen Perguruan Tinggi Islam en-US Jurnal As-Salam 2528-1402 TEACHER EDUCATION IN CAMBODIA: FORMULAE, CHALLENGES, AND SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT https://jurnal-assalam.org/index.php/JAS/article/view/401 <p>Education is the key to building human capital in all countries in the world. Without enough qualified individuals, no country can be properly developed. Therefore, teacher education is essential in all countries. All kinds of development processes emerge from learning and teaching. A teacher is the most important character in building human capital. So, teacher education is even more important. Cambodia has a very long history of education. Education in this country used to reach the top during the Angkor Period and dropped down to zero during the Killing Fields. This article reviews some aspects of education, the formulae of teacher education after year zero, and the challenges of teacher education, and it also suggests some ideas to improve the teacher education process in Cambodia. This research is qualitative research with a documentary study approach. This article shows that education in Cambodia used to peak and fall to zero.</p> Sereyrath Em Pisith Chin Somphors Khan Nel Nun Copyright (c) 2022 Sereyrath Em, Pisith Chin, Somphors Khan, Nel Nun https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 6 2 90 104 10.37249/assalam.v6i2.401 CAMBODIAN BUDDHIST MONK STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION IN LEARNING ENGLISH: THE CASE OF HUN NENG BUDDHIST PRIMARY SCHOOL, KAMPONG CHAM TOWN https://jurnal-assalam.org/index.php/JAS/article/view/405 <p>This study presents an overview of a survey on Cambodian Buddhist monk students’ motivation in learning English at Hun Neng Buddhist Primary School, Kampong Cham Town. The study employed a quantitative method. The study aimed to examine the motivation levels of the participants and the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation levels. 93 Buddhist monk students participated in the study. The findings show that the Buddhist monk students were highly motivated to learn English, and it was also reported that they were more extrinsically motivated than intrinsically motivated. The study also recommends that motivation inside and outside the classroom be carefully considered. It is also recommended that future research be conducted with a larger sample size using other statistical analyses at other educational institutions. Qualitative and mixed-methods designs are also recommended.</p> Pheaktra Keo Seylanin Yoeurn Monyroth Prom Pisith Chin Sereyrath Em Copyright (c) 2022 Pheaktra Keo, Seylanin Yoeurn, Monyroth Prom, Pisith Chin, Sereyrath Em https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 6 2 105 121 10.37249/assalam.v6i2.405 TEACHING ADVANCED LISTENING DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC: LECTURERS’ STRATEGIES EXPLAINED https://jurnal-assalam.org/index.php/JAS/article/view/392 <p>Listening is one of the four sub-skills in English that need to be mastered. Learning will be more effective when using the appropriate learning strategies. In this pandemic period, appropriate learning strategies are necessary to optimize learning. The purpose of this research is to find out what strategies lecturers need and use in teaching advanced listening during COVID-19 at UIN Ar-Raniry and how lecturers apply and implement the strategy in teaching advanced listening during COVID-19 at UIN Ar-Raniry. The researcher used email and WhatsApp as the media. The data collection method used in this study is qualitative, using a narrative approach. In collecting data, the researcher also used data collection techniques using the semi-structured interview type. The researcher used data reduction and written summarization to analyze the data. The participants are three permanent lecturers and one substitute lecturer in the Department of English Language Education of Ar-Raniry State Islamic University. They are selected purposively using specific criteria. This study’s results indicate that using the right strategy in the learning process will produce effective learning. All participants can investigate their right thoughts, opinions, and arguments, including any aspect of listening teaching strategies.</p> Saiful Akmal Mulia Mulia Ghiffary An-nur Copyright (c) 2022 Saiful Akmal, Mulia Mulia, Ghiffary An-nur https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 6 2 122 133 10.37249/assalam.v6i2.392 THE MOST EFFECTIVE ENGLISH TEACHING METHODS IN RURAL SCHOOLS https://jurnal-assalam.org/index.php/JAS/article/view/381 <p>Effective teaching methods in many contexts are still a concern when it comes to teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia. It relates to a lack of English proficiency. Even after six years of formal language learning, students can still not acquire productive English abilities such as speaking and writing. This study's main objective is to find the English teachers' perspectives concerning the most effective teaching methods in rural schools throughout four districts, Malaka, Kupang, Timor Tengah Utara, and Timor Tengah Selatan. The mixed-method was administered through a questionnaire, data collected from 26 English teachers at Senior High School who met the criteria. In addition, eight respondents were interviewed to learn how to apply effective methods. The most effective methods of teaching English in rural areas include Suggestopedia, Audio-Lingual Method, Communicative Language Teaching, and Task-Based Language Teaching.</p> Darius Yonatan Nama Christmas Prasetia Ate Copyright (c) 2022 Darius Yonatan Nama, Christmas Prasetia Ate https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 6 2 134 144 10.37249/assalam.v6i2.381 CAMBODIAN TEACHERS' READINESS OF USING ICT: THE CASE OF RURAL UPPER-SECONDARY SCHOOLS https://jurnal-assalam.org/index.php/JAS/article/view/432 <p>Many people in the twenty-first century are familiar with technology. The Education? Ministry of the Kingdom of Cambodia has also included ICT subjects in the school curriculum. However, due to the lack of preparation, many Cambodian teachers, especially those living in the countryside, face many challenges with ICT applications and seem unprepared to use ICT in their teaching. The current study employed a quantitative method through survey techniques. It aimed to examine Cambodian teachers' perceptions of ICT use in the classroom, the level of training on ICT, and the challenges of technical support and ICT infrastructure in schools. 109 teachers (25 females) were asked to participate in the study. The results show that all the teachers had a positive attitude toward using ICT in teaching. Although most of them are confident in their ability to use ICT, less than half use it in their teaching. The result also shows that most teachers received training on using ICT, but they possessed only basic computer skills. Most of them reported that having poor access to computers and the internet was their main challenge. Future studies should be conducted using a qualitative or mixed-methods design with similar topics. The study regarding the challenges of implementing an ICT school curriculum provided by MoEYS is also recommended.</p> Sina Pang Ravy Nhor Sereyrath Em Copyright (c) 2022 Sina Pang, Ravy Nhor, Sereyrath Em https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 6 2 145 162 10.37249/assalam.v6i2.432 THE CORRELATION BETWEEN INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP AND EFFICACY AMONG THE CAMBODIAN PUBLIC LOWER SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS https://jurnal-assalam.org/index.php/JAS/article/view/437 <p>Researchers have explored instructional leadership's correlation with teacher efficacy in developed countries, yet there is no research to broadly study in developing country contexts, especially in the public schools of Cambodia. Hence, the research objective is to find a significant correlation between the instructional leader and the efficacy of Cambodian public lower secondary school teachers. The researcher uses a quantitative method to collect data through a survey questionnaire. Also, the researcher uses the Pearson Correlation coefficient, a tool in SPSS version 23, to find the correlation between the instructional leader and teacher efficacy. There were 100 participants who were public lower secondary school teachers who participated in the data collection process. The key finding points out that the instructional leader has a high positive correlation with teacher efficacy, which is statistically significant. Thus, the instructional leader certainly correlates with efficacy among Cambodian public lower secondary school teachers. The result is significant for instructional leaders and relevant stakeholders in improving teachers' efficacy to fulfill their tasks better than before. Besides, future studies should focus on similar topics with different theories and a larger sample size at other institutions across the country. Finally, future studies should also emphasize qualitative and mixed-method designs.</p> Sopheng Tep Copyright (c) 2022 Sopheng Tep https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-19 2022-10-19 6 2 163 180 10.37249/assalam.v6i2.437 TEACHERS' AND LEARNERS' PERCEPTIONS OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT PRACTICE IN ENHANCING LEARNING IN EFL COURSES https://jurnal-assalam.org/index.php/JAS/article/view/434 <p>Assessment is inevitable in education. Formative assessment plays a crucial role in enhancing students' learning and performance. With the growing understanding of the role of formative assessment, many countries in the world have considered formative assessment as the primary mechanism of assessment reform in education. In Cambodia, a shift in focus to formative assessment as its assessment reform aimed at enhancing students has been noticed. The present study employed a quantitative method to examine teachers' and learners' perceptions of formative assessment practices in enhancing learning in Cambodian EFL courses. The participants of this study were 30 teachers (3 females) and 50 students ( 22 males). They are teaching and learning English as a Foreign Language. The results revealed that the respondents have a more positive perception of formative assessment. It highlighted a better understanding of formative assessment concepts, purposes, and development strategies. The results also indicated that participants' perceptions about formative assessment enhance learning in EFL courses through various roles of feedback. The results showed that respondents perceived that it is demanded of assessors or teachers to have higher knowledge about formative assessment to assess students in formative ways. Time-consuming was also perceived as a challenge in formative assessment practice. The findings also revealed that participants were more likely to use formative assessment in their EFL courses in the future. Future studies with many participants, mixed method approaches, and cross-disciplinary research in Cambodia should be conducted in either private or public HEIs.</p> Ravy Nhor Sina Pang Sereyrath Em Copyright (c) 2022 Ravy Nhor, Sina Pang, Sereyrath Em https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 6 2 181 201 10.37249/assalam.v6i2.434 THE IMPACT OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION, A CREATIVE MINDSET, WORK ETHICS, AND JOB SATISFACTION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS IN LHOKSEUMAWE https://jurnal-assalam.org/index.php/JAS/article/view/448 <p>This study seeks to learn about: (1) Innovative work ethic attitudes, (2) Interpersonal interactions about work ethics, (3) A creative approach to job satisfaction (4) Personal interactions that contribute to job satisfaction. 5) The impact of a creative mindset, effective interpersonal communication, a strong work ethic, and job happiness on teachers' effectiveness. Using quantitative methods, a survey approach, a population of 584 teachers, a sample of 237 teachers, a proportional random sampling technique based on the provisions of the model by Slovin, a questionnaire data collection technique called the "Likert scale," and plans for path analysis data processing, this research was carried out at public junior high schools in Lhokseumawe. The direct effect of innovation on work ethic is 0.048; the direct influence of interpersonal communication on work ethic is 0.05; the immediate impact of innovation on job satisfaction is 0.019; the direct impact of interpersonal communication on job satisfaction is 0.04; the direct effect of innovation on teacher performance is 0.22; the direct influence of interpersonal communication on performance is 0.04; these are just a few of the research findings. Concurrent research findings A total of 0.53 of the characteristics that directly affect teacher performance are innovative attitude, interpersonal communication, work ethic, and job satisfaction; the remaining 0.47 is affected by other factors.</p> Saiful Bahri Benyamin Situmorang Darwin Darwin Copyright (c) 2022 Saiful Bahri, Benyamin Situmorang, Darwin Darwin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-11-11 2022-11-11 6 2 202 213 10.37249/assalam.v6i2.448 A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH INSTRUCTORS' TPACK IN INDONESIA https://jurnal-assalam.org/index.php/JAS/article/view/479 <p>In this twenty-first century, It is essential that English instructors continually build their TPACK to improve language teaching and learning. Research on the development of TPACK in Indonesia has been in great demand by academics and researchers. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to give a thorough synthesis of the reported outcomes of Indonesian English instructors' TPACK development. The evolution of TPACK for English teachers is examined in this literature review, which is structured circa five disparate research techniques (self-report measures, open-ended questionnaires, performance assessments, interviews, and observations). In order to do this, a search in 2011–2021, Education Research Information Center (ERIC), Taylor and Francis, and Library Genesis databases was carried out. Eight studies were deemed appropriate for analysis in the current study after criteria were applied to publications retrieved from the databases. There was a three-level analysis done. The first was a study-level analysis focused on each study's overall features. The second method analysis concentrated on the research tools and target audience. The final one provided a summary of the study findings through the literature to show the outcome of Indonesian instructors' TPACK development. The results of this present study gave an overview of the research techniques and the result on TPACK development. Additionally, this study also demonstrated an upsurge in publications regarding TPACK development among English instructors in Indonesia.</p> Susi Su'aidah Hasibuan Utami Dewi Sholihatul Hamidah Daulay Copyright (c) 2022 Susi Su'aidah Hasibuan, Utami Dewi, Sholihatul Hamidah Daulay https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-12-23 2022-12-23 6 2 214 228 10.37249/assalam.v6i2.479 THAILAND STUDENTS’ DIFFICULTIES AND MOTIVATION IN STUDYING BIPA AT UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH SUMATERA UTARA https://jurnal-assalam.org/index.php/JAS/article/view/485 <p>This study was conducted to identify the difficulties, challenges, and motivations of foreign students studying Bahasa at the Universitas Muhammadiyah Sumatera Utara (UMSU). This research was conducted by taking data from 12 foreign students from Thailand who took part in the Bahasa Indonesia Bagi Penutur Asing (BIPA) program at UMSU as research respondents. Observations, questionnaires, and interviews were used as research materials to obtain data and analyzed using the descriptive qualitative method by looking at the percentage only. The results showed that there were several difficulties faced by BIPA students, including; difficulty pronouncing some phonemes in Bahasa; lack of time both in learning and practicing Bahasa; lack of confidence to speak Bahasa; challenging teaching materials, students’ cultural background; the different languages of the learners; and the lack of additional resources that can be accessed online. It was also found that the respondents had a positive attitude and high motivation when learning Bahasa. Further findings indicate that BIPA teachers’ role also motivates students to learn Bahasa. Overall, foreign students have a positive attitude and high motivation to learn Bahasa if they get encouragement and guidance from the teacher and the surrounding environment.</p> Cut Novita Srikandi Copyright (c) 2022 Cut Novita Srikandi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-12-23 2022-12-23 6 2 229 243 10.37249/assalam.v6i2.485 THE INFLUENCE OF TA'BIR SYAFAWI ON SIMPLE ARABIC SPEAKING SKILLS IN THIRD GRADE AT EL-FITRA ELEMENTARY SCHOOL https://jurnal-assalam.org/index.php/JAS/article/view/512 <p>Language is an essential and valuable communication tool for fostering mutual understanding in our activity. Children must be taught language skills from a young age, which can be accomplished through schooling. To improve the students speaking skills, the researchers presented the study on the influence of Ta'bir Syafawi on simple Arabic speaking skills in third grade at El-Fitra elementary school. The author used the t-test to see how the results of the Ta'bir Syafawi method influence the students Arabic speaking skills. The research employed a quantitative method with data processing that utilized the SPSS application function version 20. There were 672 students at El-Fitra elementary school, with 56 students divided into two study groups (classes) in class third-A and class third-B. The results showed that the t-test in the experimental class was 0.0000, which was less than 0.05 as a standard (rule) in concluding a hypothesis. Because 0.0000 &lt; 0.05, it can be concluded that applying the Ta'bir Syafawi method influences the simple kalam skills of El-Fitra elementary school students in the third grade. Therefore, the method must be applied in learning Arabic to influence the students Arabic skills, especially kalam skills.</p> Sri Muta'ali Sofyan Sauri Copyright (c) 2022 Sri Muta'ali, Sofyan Sauri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 6 2 244 256 10.37249/assalam.v6i2.512 THE PRINCIPALS’ LEADERSHIP IN MANAGING JOB DESCRIPTION AT MAN 2 BANDA ACEH https://jurnal-assalam.org/index.php/JAS/article/view/362 <p>The leadership of the madrasa principal substantially plays a significant role in promoting the quality of an educational institution. Implementing <em>the job description </em>in specific departments should be carefully applied and fulfill the applied procedures. The objective of this study was to find out the process of <em>job description </em>application conducted by the principal of MAN 2 Banda Aceh. This study is categorized as qualitative research, employing observation, interview, and documentation as data collection techniques. The data were analyzed through several steps: data reduction, data display, and conclusion. The findings of this study indicated that the principal of MAN 2 Banda Aceh has administratively implemented job description management based on the existing regulation. Managerially, the principal held specific tests for the employees (teachers and staff) assigning the <em>job description. </em>In addition, conditions and criteria were established in deciding the <em>job description, </em>namely formation request, educational background, working experience, physical and mental health, age, social relationship, and so on. The principal of MAN 2 Banda Aceh faced some obstacles in placing the <em>job description </em>encompassing internal and external factors, namely the mindset and culture-set of employees. At the same time, externally, they were influenced by the complex skill and possible personal and political interests of personnel.</p> Basidin Mizal Hasnaini Hasnaini Tathahira Tathahira Copyright (c) 2022 Basidin Mizal, Hasnaini Hasnaini, Tathahira Tathahira https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 6 2 257 268 10.37249/assalam.v6i2.362 THE ANALYSIS OF GRAMATICAL AND LEXICAL ERRORS ON THE STUDENTS' THESES OF IAIN TAKENGON https://jurnal-assalam.org/index.php/JAS/article/view/444 <p>This research used the Error Analysis (EA) method to examine the grammatical mistakes made by English department students of the State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Takengon. The thesis works produced by those students were the focus of this study. Six students' theses were mined for information, specifically chapters four and five. The authors collected data from students, recognized grammatical faults, categorized errors in students' theses to estimate the frequency of errors, and then converted the data into percentages for analysis. Evidence suggests eleven distinct categories of writing mistakes made by students. There are 6% cases of improper subject-verb agreement, 3% cases of wrong word order, 10% cases of improper preposition, 17% cases of improper article use, 3% cases of improper pluralization, 16% cases of improper punctuation, 6% cases of improper auxiliary use, 24% cases of obscene, unnecessary words, 6% cases of wrong word choice, 6% cases of improper parallel structure, and 3% cases of redundant expression. In addition, the author counted 175 different typos. Punctuation, introductory phrase, and adverbial errors predominate. According to the findings, students' grammatical mistakes are fueled by their inability to master the rules of the target language and their limited familiarity with its vocabulary and structures.</p> Shaumiwaty Shaumiwaty Imam Munandar Copyright (c) 2022 Shaumiwaty Shaumiwaty, Imam Munandar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 6 2 269 285 10.37249/assalam.v6i2.444